Afghanistan Jewelry

Afghanistan, a landlocked country in South Asia, is bordered by Pakistan to the east and south, Iran to the west, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan to the north, and China to the northeast. This strategic location has historically made Afghanistan a crossroads for various cultures and trade routes.



Afghanistan experiences a continental climate, with hot summers and cold winters, particularly in the highland areas. The diversity in terrain leads to significant variations in weather, with arid deserts in the south and snowy mountains in the northeast.


The fauna of Afghanistan includes a mix of species that symbolize the convergence of the Eurasian and Indian subcontinent biotas. Notable species include the snow leopard, Marco Polo sheep, and the Afghan hound. Conservation efforts are complicated by regional instability.

Longest Rivers

  • Amu Darya: This river forms part of Afghanistan’s northern border, flowing from the Pamir Mountains into Turkmenistan.
  • Helmand River: The longest river wholly within Afghanistan, it flows through arid regions into the Sistan Basin.

Highest Mountains

  • Noshak Peak: At 7,492 meters, it is the highest point in Afghanistan, located in the Hindu Kush range.
  • Tirich Mir: Although primarily in Pakistan, its slopes also extend into Afghanistan.


Prehistory to the Achaemenid Empire

Archaeological findings indicate human habitation dating back to at least 50,000 years. Ancient empires such as the Achaemenid included Afghanistan as a crucial region.

Islamic Conquests to the Mongol Invasion

Post 7th century, the Islamic conquests transformed the region both culturally and religiously. The Mongol invasion under Genghis Khan in the 13th century marked another period of intense turmoil.

The Great Game to Modern Age

The 19th century’s “Great Game” between the British Empire and Tsarist Russia significantly influenced Afghanistan’s modern boundaries and its role as a buffer state. The 20th century saw Afghanistan maintaining its neutrality during both World Wars and the Cold War, albeit with fluctuating levels of stability.

Recent Conflicts

The late 20th and early 21st centuries were marked by major conflicts, including the Soviet invasion in 1979 and subsequent U.S. involvement following September 11, 2001. The political landscape remains highly volatile.


Afghanistan’s demographics are diverse, with numerous ethnic groups such as Pashtuns, Tajiks, Hazaras, and Uzbeks. The nation’s complex ethnic tapestry influences its linguistic, cultural, and political patterns. Despite modern influences, many traditional lifestyles remain, particularly in rural areas.

Administrative Divisions

Afghanistan is divided into 34 provinces, each governed from a provincial capital. Each province encompasses several districts. Here are a few examples:

  • Kabul Province: Population of approximately 4.1 million.
  • Kandahar Province: Population of around 1.2 million.
  • Herat Province: Population of about 1.9 million. The rest of the provinces vary significantly in population, influenced by factors such as geography, security, and economic opportunities.

Largest Cities by Population

  • Kabul: 4.1 million
  • Herat: 556,205
  • Kandahar: 491,500
  • Mazar-e Sharif: 469,800
  • Kunduz: 304,600
  • Jalalabad: 356,274
  • Balkh: 141,848
  • Baghlan: 163,456
  • Gardez: 70,641
  • Khost: 160,214

Education Systems


Education in Afghanistan includes free primary and secondary education, although the country faces significant challenges such as accessibility, especially for girls, and infrastructure. Higher education is also available with several major universities.

Top Universities

  • Kabul University
  • American University of Afghanistan
  • Balkh University



Afghanistan has several airports, with the five major ones being:

  • Hamid Karzai International Airport (Kabul)
  • Herat International Airport
  • Kandahar International Airport
  • Mazar-e Sharif International Airport
  • Jalalabad Airport


The country has a developing railway system, with approximately 75 kilometers of railway lines connecting it to neighboring countries like Uzbekistan and Iran.


Afghanistan has about 17,700 kilometers of roads, but many remain unpaved. This network connects major cities and regions, although security remains a concern.

Major Ports

While landlocked, Afghanistan uses ports in neighboring countries, like the port of Karachi in Pakistan, through transit agreements.

Country Facts

  • Population: 38 million
  • Capital: Kabul
  • Languages: Pashto and Dari (Persian)
  • Major Religions: Predominantly Sunni Islam
  • Ethnic Groups: Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek
  • Currency: Afghan Afghani (AFN)
  • ISO Country Codes: AF, AFG, 004
  • International Calling Code: +93
  • Top-Level Domain: .af