According to Allcitycodes, Georgia has more than half of its surface above 1,000 meters of altitude, which makes it the most mountainous country in the Transcaucausia. The southern region of the Caucasus is an important forest area in which the exuberant coniferous forests stand out, still little exploited.
The Suram mountain range, which runs from north to south, divides the territory between the southern slopes of the Greater Caucasus and the northwestern sector of the Little Caucasus; the highest peaks in the country belong to it, which exceed 4,000 m in altitude. Three great natural regions give this state a great diversity of landscapes and climates.
In the north is the SW slope of the Greater Caucasus, formed by a main chain of 1 500 km and a series of transverse chains that create a relief of narrow and deep valleys. In the south there is a plateau that serves as a border with Armenia and Turkey. To the west, a wide alluvial prairie coastal to the Black Sea, the plain of Colchis, appears as the most fertile and populated area of the country.
The main rivers are the Rioni, which irrigates the Colchis plain and flows through a delta into the Black Sea, and the Kura, whose mouth opens into the Caspian Sea.
North Georgians enjoy a subalpine climate, or alpine depending on the altitude; those of the South, of a continental climate, rather dry, with cold winters and little rains (600 mm per year); and those of the western plains benefit from a humid subtropical climate, almost Mediterranean, with about 2 000 mm of rainfall each year.
Despite the mountainous nature of the terrain, Georgia has managed to achieve some successes in the development of agriculture, industry and commerce. After a significant growth between 1971 and 1985, above the Soviet average, the economy plunged into a phase of deterioration. However, the agricultural sector is highly specialized and technified and the level of its production reaches one of the highest values in Southern Caucasia.
The variety of regions makes it possible to obtain a diversity of crops such as cereals, tea, cotton, tobacco, grapevines, fruits and vegetables, the latter two located in the lower plain of the Rioni river. All these agricultural products have traditionally been exported to the rest of the countries that made up the former USSR. Transhumant sheep farming, practiced in the highlands near Armenia, poultry and beekeeping are also productive sectors that influence the Georgian economy.
Among the varied but not very abundant subsoil resources, coal in the western slopes of the Great Caucasus, lignite in those of the Little Caucasus and considerable manganese deposits in Chiatura stand out. The main source of energy is hydroelectric, obtained through several power plants that were built in the 1960s on the Rioni, Inguri and Kura rivers. Also the oil is important; The city of Batumi is a traditional center for refining and exporting Azerbaijani oil that comes from Baku, through a pipeline. However, due to the political and social instability that the region suffers, the supply of the black liquid is frequently interrupted.
Industrial production represents 40% of that of the state and shows a marked dependence on raw materials and semi-finished products. The main sectors, which are based on local deposits, are mining, metallurgical, mechanical, chemical and oil. Industry employs 40% of the active population, while agriculture only employs 11%. In August 1991, Georgia began a process of privatization of state-owned companies, as well as a process of nationalization of the Moscow- dependent banks. In June 1992, this new European nation participated, in Istanbul, in the creation of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation Zone.
The largest airlines serving the airport are British Airways, Swiss, and Turkish Airlines; Aeroflot provides the travel service from Tbilisi (Tbilisi) to any point of the former Soviet bloc. The highway connecting Georgia to Russia through the Abkhaz coast via the Caucasian Range tunnel is closed. Other entry points include the Georgian Military Highway route. The three largest ports (Batumi, Poti and Sukhumi) are located on the Black Sea coast. Batumi and Poti are departure points for transport boats that occasionally depart for Odessa, Sochi, Trabzon and Istanbul
Georgian culture has evolved through the long history of the country, making the latter the depository of a unique national culture with a strong literary tradition based on the Georgian language and its own alphabet. This has resulted in a very strong sense of national identity that has helped preserve Georgian pride despite successive periods of foreign occupation and forced assimilation.
In modern times, from the 17th century onwards, Georgian culture was largely influenced by cultural innovations coming from Europe. The first Georgian painting house was established in the 1620s in Italy and the first in Georgia was founded in 1709 in Tbilisi. Georgian culture suffered during Soviet times due to the Russification policy which was strongly resisted by many Georgians. Since Georgia’s independence in 1991, the resurgence of culture has taken off despite the economic and political difficulties of the post-Soviet era.