Geography of Vietnam

Geography of Vietnam

General information of Vietnam

According to Allcitycodes, the official name is the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (SRV). Located in the eastern part of the Indochinese Peninsula. The area is 331,690 km2, the population is 80 million people. The official language is Vietnamese. The capital is Hanoi (3.3 million people, 2001). Public holiday – Independence Day September 2 (since 1945).

Member of the UN (since 1977), ASEAN (since 1995), APEC (since 1998), etc.

Geography of Vietnam

Located between 8°10′ and 23°24′ north latitude and between 102°09′ and 109°30′ east longitude. From the east, the country is washed by the South China Sea, from the west – by the Gulf of Thailand. The length of the sea coast is 3960 km. The territory of Vietnam includes islands located in the South China Sea and the Gulf of Thailand, incl. part of the Paracel and Spratly Islands. The largest of them (km2): Phu Quoc (568), Cat Ba (180), Condao (50).

In the north, Vietnam borders on China (the length of the border is 1300 km), in the west – on Laos (650 km), in the southwest – on Cambodia (930 km). From north to south, the country stretches for 1650 km, from east to west: 600 km in the north, 400 km in the south and approx. 50 km in the central part of Vietnam.

The western and inland regions of Vietnam are occupied by the mountains and plateaus of the Yunnan Highlands. The Truong Son Range stretches from north to south for 1,400 km. A narrow lowland runs along the coast. In the north and in the south there are two plains formed by the deltas of the Red and Mekong rivers, the area of which is respectively 15 thousand and 40 thousand km2.

The rivers belong to the South China Sea basin. Their total length is 41 thousand km. The largest rivers (km): Red (1149, in Vietnam 510) and Mekong (4220, in Vietnam 220). The most important lakes (ha): in the south – Darlak (1 thousand), in the north – Babe (500), in Hanoi – Western (466).

The bowels are rich in minerals: coal, oil, natural gas, iron ore, manganese, copper, etc. The most significant are the reserves of hard coal – 12-15 billion tons, apatite – up to 1 billion tons. Real oil reserves are estimated at 2.5 to 3.5 billion tons, natural gas – from 600 to 1200 billion m3. Hydropower resources are estimated at 80 billion kWh.

The land fund is 33.2 million hectares. Agricultural land covers 7.5 million hectares (21% of the total territory). Four types of soils predominate: red earth and basalt soils 16 million hectares, alluvial soils 8.6 million, gray soils 2.5 million, stony soils of high mountain regions 3.3 million hectares.

The climate is subtropical and subequatorial, formed under the influence of dry northeast monsoons from the mountainous regions and moist southwest winds from the sea. Summer, when the flow of air from the ocean dominates, is the rainy season. Winter, when air currents rush from land to sea, is the dry season. The average temperature of the warmest month (in the north – June, July, in the south – April) is approx. 29°C; the coldest – from 15°C in the north (January) to 25°C in the south (December). The average annual precipitation in the northern regions is up to 2830 mm, in the southern regions – up to 1600 mm.

There are 289 families, 1850 genera and 7000 plant species in the forests; 1000 species of birds, 300 mammals. Along the coastline there are almost 1000 species of fish (catch 600-700 thousand tons per year) and other valuable seafood. 500 thousand tons of salt are mined per year.

Population of Vietnam

According to the 1999 census, the population of Vietnam was 76.3 million people. Compared with the previous 1989 census, the population increased by 11.9 million people. The birth rate in 1989-99 was 1.7%, in 2002 1.31%. Child mortality 42 people. per 1000 newborns. Average life expectancy (2002) 68.2 years, men 65.5 years, women 70.1 years.

Percentage of migration of the rural population to the cities in 1989-99 3.2% annually. In 1999, 23.5% of the country’s population lived in cities, in 2002 – 25%. Sex ratio: 51% women and 49% men. Retirement age (only public sector workers in cities) for men – 60 years, for women – 55 years.

The literacy rate is 91% (in 1989—88%).

Vietnam is a multinational country with 54 nationalities and nationalities living in it. Actually Vietnamese (Viets, or Kinh) make up 87% of the population. They live mainly in the deltas of the rivers – Red and Mekong, in the coastal regions of Central Vietnam. The number of Chinese in Vietnam is 4%. Of the nationalities, the most numerous are Tey, Thai, Muong, Hoa, Khmer, Nung – St. 1 million people each. The smallest nationalities – Brau, Roma, Oda number several hundred people.

The national language is Vietnamese, which is spoken by St. 90% of the population. Ethnic minorities, while maintaining their own language, use the Vietnamese language in interethnic communication.

Officially, 6 religions are recognized in Vietnam: Buddhism, Catholicism, Protestantism, Islam, Caodaism and Hoahao. According to official figures, in the country approx. 7.5 million Buddhists, while 85% of the population consider themselves followers of this religion, approx. 5 million Catholics, 500 thousand Protestants, 150-170 thousand Muslims.

Geography of Vietnam