The lapping process is an art. Is the step (technical) of gem embellishment to the jeweler industry. From a rough Ashlar, the cutting creates facets that intensify the brightness of the gem. A stoning explores greater brightness, perfect transparency, absence of visible impurities and the maximum number of colors that the gem may have, making it the most valuable. Some factors will determine what the ideal cut for each yolk; as the format of the rough Ashlar, the position of the inclusions, the weight and where more the predominant color. There are three classifications for types of stoning: the stoning, the faceted and smooth. Before describing the types of stoning, let’s talk about the steps that this process needs to pass.
The Steps of Stoning
Cut – this step is very important, since it requires cutting’s very careful and sure how and where to cut the rough Ashlar selected. If the rough is cut erroneously, all the work will be compromised and the beauty of the gem will be diminished, as well as your value.
Pre-training -after court, pre-training process requires a lot of experience and attention, because it determines the type of stoning and your size (weight). Usually at this stage, the cutting uses the vertical steel wheel for grinding the gem.
Giving the form – the gem is fixed in a metal rod and pressed to a cutting device that consists of a rotating disk on which is applied a mixture of water, oil and diamond dust, and then work the desired format and reach the ideal proportions. In this step, the skill and professional experience are essential.
Polishing – is the process end of stoning. After the gem comes to size and ideal proportions, it is necessary to decrease the dimensions of the surface roughness and reach extremely smooth and shiny surfaces. For this successful outcome, a fine paste.
Basic Types of Stoning
In 1919, Marcel Tolkowsky created the brilliant cut with 57 facets (now with 58 facets). It was developed especially for the diamonds, but was adapted to other formats and used in other gems. The stoning brilliant ideal occurs when the light enters through the table (top), walk through the inside of the yolk and the table revealing a lot of brightness and color intensity. To reach that perfect cut, must follow correctly the ideal proportions established. The stoning in the formats, oval, shuttle, pear, drop and heart are some variations of the brilliant cut. These are known as bright.
That stoning is used in translucent, opaque gemstones, agates and also in transparent gems. The stoning lisa can be flat (plate) or convex (cabochons) and as for the format, can be round, oval, rectangular, square, or triangular.
The cabochon, Word comes from the French caboche, meaning large head nail. This type of cut is only one facet: the background. You can work with a flat and a convex, with the two sides convex or concave-convex and the other part. The cabochon lapidary or cabochon is a smooth cutting techniques simpler.
This cut is carved yolk sphere (ball), and may have a hole on one side or a direct hole on one side to another. May be smooth or faceted.
This technique consists of facets cut in steps parallel to the table and the rondízio (waist) and is a type of cut used in colored gems. There are stoning with various formats as the trapezius, square and baguette. The stoning Emerald or Emerald Square uses this technique. The gems with that stoning have more facets on the bottom and the corners more fragile can be removed by octagonal format.
Scissors Or Cutting Crusade
This cutting technique is a variation of stoning step where facets if subdivided by scissors in four facets.
Cut 8 X 8
Stoning in eight aspects is also used for the diamonds. The gems feature in addition to the table, 8 facets on the top and eight at the bottom.
Is a combination of smooth cutting with veneers or stepped in the same gem. Normally round shape with the upper faceted as the brilliant and the bottom step.
It is very important not to confuse the lapping type with the format (GEM cut), that is, each type of stone can be applied in various shapes (round, square, oval, triangular, hexagonal, baguette, shuttle, briolete, etc). The art of perfect cut can be achieved through courses and a lot of dedication, but it could take years for a cutting become well qualified. After all, the gems are so fascinating and mysterious thanks to the skilled hands of artisans that give them more life, brightness and color.
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